Two Greek warriors in single combat. Behind them are cars of war. Fragment of a black figure cratera attica, Selinunte, a sixth century C. (a contemporary reforms Clistenes). The military equipment for the melee (helmet, spear) is similar to that used the hoplitas, but they are fighting together in phalanges, and the shield is designed to protect both the row as a companion who wears it.
In Ancient Greece, the demos (translatable people) was the subject of sovereignty if the polis (city-state) was democratic (or Greek Athenian democracy). In the political expression of that demonstration was not involved in most of the population, neither children nor women, foreigners (metecos) and slaves (part of the work force in the slave mode of production). The demonstration was excluded from the political decisions in the poleis aristocraticas governed by aristoi (translated by the best), ie, families and economically more powerful military, which, when few (oligo) formed an oligarchy (poleis oligarchic). Credit: Danny Meyer-2011. The same configuration of the Army expressed this fact: individual fight (described in the Iliad) champions can afford expensive weapons (tanks of war) or struggle (phalanx composed of hoplitas). Access to the government had demonstrated on many occasions as a rising power that is illegitimate rulers legitimized by the popular support: the tyrants.
Much of the relexiones of legislators (Licurgo, Solon, Clistenes) and the Greek philosophers (Socrates, Plato, The Republic, Aristotle Politics, Constitution of the Athenians, Xenophon-lacedemonios of the Constitution, the Republic of the Athenians , which was given, although it is a work of Pseudo-Xenophon) was on the meaning and role of the demos and other social bodies or should have had in the polis, or political community.
Senatvs Popvlvsqve Romanvs, the Senate and the Roman People.
In ancient Rome, under the acronym SPQR, identified the two bodies social and political constituents of the Roman Republic: the Senatus (translatable Senate) and Populus (translatable people lease Populus not to be confused with Populus, Latin name of the kind of tree whose name is alamo or poplar). Although both the definition is complex and Populus is not a synonym for strict Plebs (rabble), translating them into the institutions would partner with the concepts of patricians and plebeians, the first all aristocraticas people claiming descent from the heroic and even divine ancestors (which is linked to the myths of the Trojan War through the Aeneid), and theoretically the second born of the earth. Conflicts between patricians and plebeians, political and social reforms (such as reforms of Grace), wars and civil wars Republican social and then the imposition of the principality of Augustus and the Roman Empire High, was radically transformed from the opposition, that dominated the time of (Lower Roman Empire) had been replaced by the opposition between honestiores and humiliores.
The Middle Ages Western Europe began with the fact decisive barbarian invasions that led to the forced cohabitation of peoples of many languages, ethnicity, religion and rights sharply differentiated. Politically and socially in large areas (especially in Spain and Gaul) occurred overlap germanica leader of a minority on the majority of the population (Spanish-Roman or Gallo-Roman) in the realms Germanic tribes. This fact, coupled with theoretical concepts derived from the primitive Christianity and patristica (primarily political Augustinism) was formed triestamental theory that responded to the estate’s own feudal society in which people were often equivalent to ordinary people, one of expressions with which it designated the third state, comprised mainly of farmers under the bondage of Noble, along with a small and marginalurban bourgeoisie little differentiated by wealth, but sometimes protagonizo revolts that are considered above the bourgeois revolutions (for example, in the Italian cities are talking about roughly popolo popolo minutes-and people-fat and thin).
Death of Wat Tyler, who ended the 1381 popular revolt English. The illustration is also King Edward II of England.
That situation changed decisively with the crisis of the fourteenth century, which opened the way to the social and political dynamics of the Old Regime and the Modern Age. Faced with the feudal monarchy with little power itself, which was nothing more than the top of the pyramid of vassalage, the concentration of power in the hands of the king and the increasingly clear separation between the king and kingdom to define authoritarian monarchies, in some cases failed to overcome a limiting pactismo and others came to be defined as absolute monarchies, theoretically free of any legal bond was required to respect territorial circumstances or class status, so the king as low as all the subjects. 6 The enlightened despotism of the eighteenth century mark the king’s paternalism toward the people as lapidary as a slogan was:
Everything for the people, but not the people.
The people of Madrid, whose popular types were the Manolos and retrataria Goya Majas that the customs of their entertainment and the tragedy of his historic role during the uprising of the Dos de Mayo 1808, had already risen in 1766, but in This occasion is not against invading French, but the action against the Marquis of Esquilache illustrated in a crisis situation keeps (Esquilache mutiny).
- New York Times
- Fox News
Two new tombs found last month in Saqqara, shows that large necropolis extends far below the ground.
- Vietnam Net
VietNamNet Bridge – A small five years ago, construction workers stumbled on an archaeological treasure, the ancient citadel of Thang Long (Ascending Dragon). The site is now open to the public.
- New Delhi
Washington, December 24: A team of archaeologists in Israel has claimed to have unearthed more than 250 gold coins from the seventh century (the Byzantine period) to the edge of the walled old city of Jerusalem.