For about a century after the time of Neemias, the Persian empire exerted control on the Jew. The period was relatively calm, therefore the Persians allowed to the Jews the free exercise of its religious institutions. The Jewish one was directed for the highest point priests, who gave accounts to the Persian government, fact that, at the same time, allowed to the Jews a good measure of autonomy and lowered the priesthood to a function politics. Envy, intrigues and even though murder had had its paper in the disputes for the honor to occupy the supreme priesthood. Joan, son of Joiada (Ne 12:22), is known by having assassinated the proper brother, Joshua, in the enclosure of the temple. The Prsia and Egypt had been become involved in constant conflicts during this period, and the Jew, situated between the two empires, could not escape to the envolvement. During the kingdom of Artaxerxes III many Jews had engaged themselves in a rebellion against the Prsia.
They had been deported for Babilnia and the edges of the sea Cspio. The knowledge of the law under the direction of the Esdras scribe was renewed, who read and interpreted the Holy Writs (Ne: 8: 2,7,8; 8:9,13 – 18) Made rigorous application of the principles of the Law. The cult of the foirenovado temple and the contributions for the sustenance had been demanded. The mixing marriages forbidden (Ne: 10: 30), the convicted Saturday in addition (10: 31) and was established the regular administration of the tenths (Ne: 12: 44). These reforms had left effect lasted until the times of the Macabeus, creating a faithful people the God who resisted the paganismo. Two aspects of the Jewish life had disappeared during the Persian and Greek period: the monarchy and the predictive function. The independence pretensions had been centered in the priesthood and the predictive function findou with Malaquias.
General characteristics of the Persian period. In the end of Malaquias the Jews if still found under the Persian reign and to remain in this situation during practically sixty years of the intertestamentria age. The sacerdotal form of the Jewish government was respected and supreme priest it still received bigger to be able civil beyond its religious crafts, even so had of, of course, giving accounts to the Persian governor of the Syrian. In 2Reis 17:24 – 4, we read that well before, in 721 AC, later destroying the kingdom of the ten tribes of Israel and exhausting the Israelis through the cities of the fears, the king of the Assyrian repovoou the cities of Israel with a mixing people who came to be called ‘ ‘ samaritanos’ ‘ , its known territory being as Samaria, the name of the main city, former-capital of Israel.